# Punipuni Offline

52 In a relationship Male from Golden Lake       46

(WARNING NO PM'S ) I HAVE DEPLOMA'S IN ( WILDLIFE//FORESTRY CONSERVATION AND FOREST RANGER AND GAMEWARDEN ALSO LAW ENFORCEMENT AND FIRERESCUE ...( I'M A TRUE SCOTS OF THE HIGHLANDS..LOCH AWE...I STAND VERY STRONG ON MY CLAN'S CULTURE..Also CHEROKEE NATIVE.I CARRY A RING THAT HAS BEEN PASSED DOWN 11 GENERATIONS OR MORE. NOR WILL I PUT UP WITH ANY DISREPECT AT ANY LEVEL (NOT INTO ON-LINE DATING 60% OF THESE CHAT ROOMS ARE FAKE.THEIR JUST FANTASY..100% MALE. ( ONLY INTO REAL WOMAN OR FINE LADIES.).'..NOT INTO CATFISH...DON'T CROSS THAT LINE.. You Know What Pisses Me Off When People Use Other People Then Throw Them Aside Like They Were Nothig A@#HOLES.(.I'M A VERY HONEST PERSON' I AM NOT TWO FACED.)..I'M OLD SCHOOL AND I' DON'T DRINK.NOR DRUGS EVER.(.I"M A TRUE PATRIOT ).I can see a sadness dwelling in you eyes..and hear your motion..As the emotions come pouring out.And now you finally found, The answer is yes,,fusion....The pain shows us the way forward.Even as the dark of night fast approached,,You always made me smile..and in order to protected the light...I can become one with you..Get your hands on that ever-elusive power and slice right throught the air ! .Who can we trust ? If we can communicate,,we'll cause miracles many times over..Because we can see the truth..(The Story of the Fire Lily...( The crackling flames rise skyward as the waving grass is burned, But from the fire on the veld a great truth can be learned...For the green and living hillside becomes a funeral pyre As all the grass across the veld is swallowed by the fire...What yesterday was living, today is dead and still..But soon a breathless miracle takes place upon the hill...For'from the blackened ruins there arises life anew And scarlet lilies lift their heads where once the veld grass grew...And so again the mystery of life and death is wrought, And man can find assurance..CYBER POLICE

Punipuni added a new image to his gallery Posted Images
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Punipuni: Warning to newcomers to Canada their will be no more freebies. No more free housing or cars or free money you'll pay just like Canadians do ....2 We will no longer tolerate disrespect towards Canadians or you will be deported. ...So like ( TRUMP said if you don't like leave
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(Post deleted by Punipuni 1 month ago)
Punipuni: This country is now I a trillion dollar debt
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Punipuni: Man we as Canadians are so sick of hearing about these poor immigrants in my country So What if TRUMP said if you don't
Ike it here then leave. .It's just the same as saying to an employee who doesn't like there and the boss says then leave does that make the that owner of a company raised then I say F-you I fully support TRUMP 100% .And you find it surprising that 60% present of Canadians do support TRUMPS words So stop your winning
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Punipuni Created a new chat room:
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Punipuni Created a new chat room:
USMC CHAT SITE
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Punipuni: Welcome to world of AI
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Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: These idiots don't have there boots in the mud and seen things that the news didn't air.So I have no respect for them.unless they've been their and seen with there own eye's. Over and out .p.s. don't mess with marines
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Punipuni: Canada is on the brink of Civil War. The people of this nation are sick and tried of thr lies and propaganda and false hopes just to be betrayed and threatenedby are so called government would has allowed high treason against the people of this nation. So don't be fooled we will not allow anyone to infiltrate and feed false propaganda to the people of Canada no more. There are 250.000 and growing by the day.So Let this be known to all traders to Canada
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Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: There is now 295.000
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Punipuni: Hello From The Citizens Federation Of Canada. ...... ( ONLY IN CANADA )...........WHY DOES A COUNTRY. .... $663.619.417.53 IN DEBT. .......HAVE BILLIONS FOR ISLAMIC DICTATORSHIPS AROUND THE WORLD?.......HAVE BILLIONS FOR REFUGEES AND ILLEGALS. ...... WELL CANADIANS WHO ARE LOSING THERE HOME'S AND JOBS, AND THE GOVERNMENT TELLS YOU SORRY CAN'T HELP YOU....WELCOME TO CANADA WERE THEY ROB FROM THE POOR AND GIVE TO THE RICH AND TERRORIST. ........ 2 View all 15 posts Punipuni: £ 1 (Post deleted by angel eyes1212 3 months ago) Wolfayas ice in reply to angel eyes1212: THAT IS ENOUGH!!! You will not sit here and disrespect the US Military you have no idea what those men and women go through what they give up to protect those they love! You have no right to judge them 0 Punipuni: THIS IS MY GUN PERMIT..........United States of America. ...........Name : 2ND AMENDMENT. ..Issue Date : 12/15/1791.....Expiration Date : NEVER 2 View all 4 posts Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: Nice 1 dadjim1234 in reply to Punipuni: Wow 0 angel eyes1212: retard faggot 0 Punipuni: Citizens Federation Of Canada. ...How about Treason ..?................Under The Treason Act returning ISIS fighters were Suppposed to be jailed for life with no chance of parole for 25 years...Trudeau did not comply on this law..This failure by Trudeau is a Treasonous Act To Canada, ,Trudeau should be removed from office on this treasonous Offence..where the blank Are The Lawyers In This Country . 1 View all 13 posts angel eyes1212: /????? 0 angel eyes1212: The Sailor Moon manga series features an extensive cast of characters created by Naoko Takeuchi. The series takes place in Tokyo, Japan, where the Sailor Soldiers (セーラー戦士 Sērā Senshi), a group of ten magical girls, are formed to combat an assortment of antagonists attempting to take over the Earth, the Solar System, and the Milky Way galaxy. Each Soldier undergoes a transformation which grants her a uniform in her own theme colors and a unique elemental power. The ten Sailor Soldiers are named after the planets of the Solar System, with the exception of Earth but including its moon. While many of the characters are humans with superhuman strength and magical abilities, the cast also includes anthropomorphic animals and extraterrestrial lifeforms. The series follows the adventures of the titular protagonist, Sailor Moon, her lover Tuxedo Mask, and her guardians: Sailors Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, and Venus. They are later joined by Chibiusa (Sailor Moon and Tuxedo Mask's daughter from the future) and four more guardians: Sailors Pluto, Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn. The series' antagonists include the Dark Kingdom, the Black Moon Clan, the Death Busters, the Dead Moon Circus, and Shadow Galactica. Takeuchi's initial concept was a story called Codename: Sailor V, in which Sailor V discovers her magical powers and protects the people of Earth. After the Codename: Sailor V manga was proposed for an anime adaptation, Takeuchi changed her concept to include ten superheroines who defend the galaxy. The manga's anime and live-action adaptations feature some original characters created by the production staff and not by Takeuchi. Contents 1 Creation and conception 2 Character design 3 Main characters 3.1 Sailor Moon 3.2 Tuxedo Mask 3.3 Sailor Mercury 3.4 Sailor Mars 3.5 Sailor Jupiter 3.6 Sailor Venus 3.7 Sailor Chibi Moon 3.8 Sailor Pluto 3.9 Sailor Uranus 3.10 Sailor Neptune 3.11 Sailor Saturn 4 Antagonists 4.1 Dark Kingdom 4.2 Hell Tree aliens 4.3 Black Moon Clan 4.4 Death Busters 4.5 Dead Moon Circus 4.6 Shadow Galactica 5 Supporting characters 5.1 Luna, Artemis, and Diana 5.2 Sailor Starlights 5.3 Other humans 5.4 Other nonhumans 6 Merchandise 7 Reception 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links Creation and conception Naoko Takeuchi initially wrote Codename: Sailor V, a one-shot manga which focused on Sailor Venus. When Sailor V was proposed for an anime adaptation by Toei Animation, Takeuchi changed the concept to include Sailor Venus as a part of a "sentai" (team of five) and created the characters of Sailors Moon, Mercury, Mars, and Jupiter.[1] The name "Sailor Senshi", or "Sailor Soldier", comes from sailor fuku, a type of Japanese school uniform that the main characters' fighting uniforms are based on, and the Japanese word senshi, which can mean "soldier", "warrior", "guardian", or "fighter".[citation needed] Takeuchi created the term by fusing English and Japanese words.[citation needed] The DIC Entertainment/Cloverway English adaptation of the anime changed it to "Sailor Scout" for most of its run. According to Takeuchi, only females can be Sailor Soldiers.[1] In the anime's fifth season, the Sailor Starlights are depicted as men transforming into women when changing from their normal forms into Sailor Soldiers (rather than just being women disguising as men as they appear in the manga), which strongly displeased Takeuchi as she felt this undermined her rule that only girls could be Sailor Soldiers.[citation needed] Most of the antagonists in the series have names that are related to minerals and gemstones, including Queen Beryl and the Four Kings of Heaven, the Black Moon Clan, Kaolinite and the Witches 5, and most of the members of the Dead Moon Circus. Members of the Amazoness Quartet are named after the first four asteroids to be discovered. The Sailor Animamates have the prefix "Sailor" (despite not being true Sailor Soldiers in the manga),[2]:Act 45 followed by the name of a metal and the name of an animal. Character design Takeuchi wanted to create a series about girls in outer space, and her editor, Fumio Osano, suggested that Takeuchi add the "sailor suit" motif to the uniform worn by the Sailor Soldiers.[3] Originally, each of the Soldiers were intended to have their own unique outfit; however, it was later determined that they would wear uniforms based on a single theme,[citation needed] and Sailor Moon's costume concept was the closest to that which would eventually be used for all the girls.[citation needed] While the Soldiers first uniforms had slight differences,[4][not in citation given] Takeuchi settled on a more unified appearance in later stages of character design.[citation needed] Among the protagonist Sailor Soldiers, Sailor Venus (during her time as Sailor V) has the only outfit that varies significantly from the others. Sailor Moon, whatever form she takes, always has a more elaborate costume than any of the others. She also gains individual power-ups more frequently than any other character. Sailor Soldiers originating from outside the Solar System have different and varying outfits; however, one single feature – the sailor collar – connects them all. Main characters The Sailor Soldiers as seen in Sailor Moon Crystal (season 3) Sailor Moon Main article: Sailor Moon (character) Usagi Tsukino (月野 うさぎ Tsukino Usagi, called Serena Tsukino in the original English dub) is the main protagonist of the series and leader of the Sailor Soldiers. Usagi is a careless fourteen-year-old girl with an enormous capacity for love, compassion, and understanding. Usagi transforms into the heroine called Sailor Moon, Soldier of Love and Justice. At the beginning of the series, she is a self-described immature crybaby who resents fighting evil and wants nothing more than to be a normal girl. As the story progresses, however, she embraces the chance to use her power to protect those she cares about.[5]:283–284[6]:209 Tuxedo Mask Main article: Tuxedo Mask Mamoru Chiba (地場 衛 Chiba Mamoru, called Darien Shields in the original English dub) is a student who is older than Usagi. When he was a young child, Mamoru was in a car accident that killed his parents and erased his memories.[7] He and Usagi share a special psychic connection, and he can sense when she is in danger.[8][9] This inspires him to take on the guise of Tuxedo Mask and fight alongside the Sailor Soldiers when needed. After an initially confrontational relationship,[10] he and Usagi remember their past lives together and fall in love again. Sailor Mercury Main article: Sailor Mercury Ami Mizuno (水野 亜美 Mizuno Ami, called Amy Anderson in the original English dub) is a quiet but intelligent fourteen-year-old bookworm in Usagi's class with a rumored IQ of 300.[11]:Act 2 She can transform into Sailor Mercury, Soldier of Water and Wisdom. Ami's shy exterior masks a passion for learning and taking care of the people around her.[12] She hopes to eventually become a doctor like her mother, and tends to be the practical one in the group. She is secretly a fan of pop culture and romance novels, and becomes embarrassed whenever this is pointed out. Ami also uses her handheld computer, which is capable of scanning and detecting virtually anything about which she requires information. Sailor Mars Main article: Sailor Mars Rei Hino (火野 レイ Hino Rei, called Raye Hino in the original English dub) is an elegant fourteen-year-old miko (English: shrine maiden). Because of her work as a Shinto priestess, Rei has limited precognition and can dispel or nullify evil using special ofuda scrolls, even in her civilian form.[5]:165–166 She transforms into Sailor Mars, Soldier of Fire and Passion.She is very serious and focused, and easily becomes annoyed by Usagi's laziness, although she cares about her very much. In the anime adaptation, Rei is portrayed as boy-crazy[5]:165–166 and short-tempered, while in the manga and live-action series she is depicted as uninterested in romance and more self-controlled.[13]:Act 36 She attends a private Catholic school separate from the other girls. Sailor Jupiter Main article: Sailor Jupiter Makoto Kino (木野 まこと Kino Makoto, called Lita Kino in the original English dub) is a fourteen-year-old girl who is a student in Usagi Tsukino's class and was rumoured to have been expelled from her previous school for fighting. Unusually tall and strong for a Japanese schoolgirl,[14]:12 she transforms into Sailor Jupiter, Soldier of Thunder and Courage.Both of Makoto's parents died in a plane crash years ago, so she lives alone and takes care of herself. In the original anime, she confesses to Seijuro that she has a younger sister who no longer wishes to speak to her.[15] She cultivates her physical strength and domestic interests, including housekeeping, cooking, and gardening. Makoto excels at hand-to-hand combat. Her dream is to marry a young handsome man and to own a flower-and-cake shop.[16] Sailor Venus Main article: Sailor Venus Minako Aino (愛野 美奈子 Aino Minako, called Mina Aino in the original English dub) is a fourteen-year-old perky dreamer. Minako first appears as the main protagonist of Codename: Sailor V.[17][18]:Act 9 She has a companion cat called Artemis who works alongside Luna in guiding the Sailor Soldiers. Minako transforms into Sailor Venus, Soldier of Love and Beauty,and leads Sailor Moon's four inner soldiers, while acting as Sailor Moon's bodyguard and decoy because of their near-identical looks. She dreams of becoming a famous singer and idol, and attends auditions whenever she can.[19] In contrast, in the live-action series, she is a successful J-pop singer (of whom Usagi, Ami, and Makoto are fans) and has poor health due to her anemia, choosing to isolate herself from the other Guardians as a result.[20] Sailor Chibi Moon Main article: Chibiusa Chibiusa (ちびうさ Chibiusa, called Rini in the original English dub) is the future daughter of Neo-Queen Serenity and King Endymion in the 30th century. She later trains with Sailor Moon to become a Sailor Soldier in her own right,[5]:123–211 and learns to transform into Sailor Chibi Moon (or "Sailor Mini Moon" in the English series). At times she has an adversarial relationship with her mother in the 20th century,[5]:284 as she is more mature than Usagi, but as the series progresses they develop a deep bond. Chibiusa wants to grow up to become like her mother.[13]:35 Sailor Pluto Main article: Sailor Pluto Setsuna Meioh (冥王 せつな Meiō Setsuna, called Trista Meioh in the original English dub) is a mysterious woman who appears first as Sailor Pluto, Soldier of Spacetime and Change.She has the duty of guarding the Space-Time Door from unauthorized travelers. Only later does she appear on Earth, living as a college student. She has a distant personality and can be very stern, but can also be quite friendly and helps the Sailor Soldiers when she can.[5]:212 After her long vigil guarding the Space-Time Door she carries a deep sense of loneliness, although she is close friends with Chibiusa. Chibiusa calls her by her nickname "Puu". Sailor Pluto's talisman is her Garnet Rod, which aids her power to freeze time and attacks. Sailor Uranus Main article: Sailor Uranus Haruka Tenoh (天王 はるか Ten'ō Haruka, called Amara Tenoh in 1 angel eyes1212: are u to pussy to say fuck/bitch/ass/pussy/cunt/ u little bitch fuck america god bless nigeria and fuck that queen BITCH yeaaaaaahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!@!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! we the citesins of chezosylvackia will not stand for this cat shit whooooooo!!!!!!!!!! vlad putin is may cousin and we will take your dogs and toasters 0 Punipuni: Hello From The Citizens Federation Of Canada. Well here's something very interesting. ......... (Only In Canada ).....*It's interesting to know that the Federal Government of Canada allows : A monthly pension of :$1,890:00 to a simple refugee...Plus; $580:00 in social aid=======A grand total of :$ 2.470.00 monthly === × 12 months ===== $28.920.00 annual lncome. .....*By comparison, the Old Age Pension of a Senior who has contributed to the development of Our Beautiful Big Country during 40 to 50 years. ....CANNOT receive more than : Amount /month$ 1,012.oo in Old Age Pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement ---×12 months ======== $12,144,00 annual lncome A different of :$16,776.00 per year ===*Perhaps our Senior Citizens should ask for the Status of Refugees instead of Appling for Old Age Pension. ......*Let us send this message to as many Canadians as possible and maybe The allowance of Refugee could be reduced to $.1.012.00..And that of are Canadian pensioners raised to$.2,470.00 per month ( who actually deserve it )..?..........The money that they have been paying in income taxes for 40 to 50 years. ....................OUR CANADIAN CITIZENS, DESERVE BETTER. ...If you feel that there is injustice served then speak up ....Thank-you from The Citizens Federation Of Canada
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Punipuni: Are there no Canadians who have the guts to speak up or are they submissive to the all mighty government of Canada ( WELL we are no under control by there propaganda of lies we go by facts
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(Post deleted by Punipuni 5 months ago)
Punipuni: I wonder if the Templars would do better if law and order were put in place to protect the citizens of Canada and it's constitution
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Punipuni: Hello From The Citizens Federation Of Canada. .We will not live under fear nor will we be ruled under Islamic or Muslim dictatorship on Canadian soil..Not Well there is true Patriots left in Canada. ..You a clear and present danger to the national security of Canada....SO LET THIS BE A WARNING. .
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Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: We are the last defense for Canada just like our forefathers did..And we stand on the original constitution that are forefathers founded on Canada
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Punipuni: The government of Canada is corrupted at so many levels
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Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: Continued when they start putting a price on life and the safety of its citizens and nation that is nothing more but high treason
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Punipuni got the Glass Half Full badge
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Punipuni Created a new chat room:
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Punipuni: Rikotatamo
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Punipuni: Ok
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Punipuni: Hello Fron The Citizens Federation Of Canada. .Well environment Canada just issued a warning. That Canada Will be facing more extremely dangerous and deadly heart waves and extremely dangerous storms and this for across Canada and The reason for this is the temperatures are climbing 2% Fastener then expected and in the northern Ontario temperatures are climbing at a faster rate by 3% percent faster. So this is do Climate change .So Environment Canada has sent bells ringing across Canada and the northern Ontario. They have stated we will witness these charges in are time. So Global Warming is no laughing matter no more.So if you don't believe me check CTVca This was issued by Environment Canada.
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angel eyes1212: For other uses, see Toaster (disambiguation).
Hamilton Beach digital toaster
A contemporary toaster from 2008
A toaster, or a toast maker, is an electric small appliance designed to toast sliced bread by exposing it to radiant heat, thus converting it into toast. Toasters can toast multiple types of sliced bread products. Invented in Scotland in 1893, it was developed over the years, with the introduction of an automatic mechanism to stop the toasting and pop the slices up.

The most common household toasting appliances are the pop-up toaster and the toaster oven. Bread slices are inserted into slots in the top of a pop-up toaster, which make toast from bread in one to three minutes by using electric heating elements. Toasters have a control to adjust how much the appliance toasts the bread. Toaster ovens have a hinged door in the front that opens to allow food items to be placed on a rack, which has heat elements above and below the grilling area. Toaster ovens function the same as a small-scale conventional oven. Toaster ovens typically have settings to toast bread and a temperature control for use of the appliance as an oven.

Contents
1 Types
1.1 Features
1.2 Pop-up toasters
1.3 Toaster ovens
1.4 Conveyor toasters
2 History
2.1 Development of the heating element
2.2 Dual-side toasting and automated pop-up technologies
2.3 Toasting technology after the 1940s
3 Risks
4 Research
6 References
Types
The same slice of bread, now toasted
The same slice of bread, now toasted
Modern toasters are typically one of three varieties: pop-up toasters, toaster ovens, and conveyor belt toasters. For home use, consumers typically choose a toaster type based on their intended use. Pop-up toasters are better than toaster ovens for making evenly toasted toast, but toaster ovens can bake and broil while pop-up toasters cannot.

Conveyor belt toasters are mostly used in restaurants or other industrial catering environments where toast needs to be made quickly and in larger quantities.

Features
Features which distinguish various types of toasters include the following:[1]

For all toasters
Consistency of toasting – The ideal toaster can provide even toasting over the area of the bread, and reproduce this throughout the lifetime of the machine.
Choice of toastiness – The user should be able to choose the darkness of the toasting.
Toast output – Various toasters can process bread into toast at different capacities.
Ease of operation – The toaster's controls should be labelled to permit easy use and predictable results.
Removability of crumb tray – Toasters with a permanently attached crumb tray will be more difficult to clean than those with a removable tray.
Cord placement – There can be variation on the placement of a cord as well as retraction functionality.
For pop-up toasters only
One-sided toasting – Toasters may optionally toast only one side of the bread, perhaps for toasting one side of a bagel.
One-slot toasting – The ability to toast an individual slot, if a single item is desired.
Slot depth – People desiring toasted oblong bread should seek a deep slotted toaster.
Slot width – People desiring toasted fat bread should seek a wide slotted toaster, as for bagels.
Safety features – Most contemporary pop-up toasters have automatic shutoff in case of toast displacement and burning.
Bread lifter – Beyond the pop-up, some toasters may incorporate a bread lifter to further expel toast products.
For toaster ovens only
Broil options – If only the upper heating element may be used then toaster ovens can make broiling an option.
Compact shape – Appropriately sized toaster ovens will serve the user's requirements but not occupy more counter space than necessary.
Design for cleaning – A nonstick interior such as that made from porcelain makes oven interiors easier to clean.
Interior lighting – A light inside the oven permits observation of cooking food.
Multiple shelf racks – Having options for positioning the oven shelf gives more control over distance between food and the heating element.
Pop-up toasters

A classically styled chrome two-slot automatic electric toaster

Glowing filaments of a modern 2-slice toaster
In pop-up or automatic toasters, bread slices are inserted vertically into the slots (generally only large enough to admit a single slice of bread each) on the top of the toaster. A lever on the side of the toaster is pressed, activating the toaster. When an internal device determines that the toasting cycle is complete, the toaster turns off and the toast pops up out of the slots. The heating elements of a pop-up toaster are usually oriented vertically, parallel to the bread slice – although there are some variations.

In earlier days, the completion of the toasting operation was determined by a mechanical clockwork timer; the user could adjust the running time of the timer to determine the degree of "doneness" of the toast, but the first cycle produced less toasted toast than subsequent cycles because the toaster was not yet warmed up. Toasters made since the 1930s frequently use a thermal sensor, such as a bimetallic strip, located close to the toast. This allows the first cycle to run longer than subsequent cycles. The thermal device is also slightly responsive to the actual temperature of the toast itself. Like the timer, it can be adjusted by the user to determine the "doneness" of the toast.[citation needed]

The most commonly used methods to adjust heat supplied to the toast are either variable time or a heat sensor.

Among pop-up toasters, those toasting two slices of bread are more purchased than those which can toast four.[1] Pop-up toasters can have a range of appearances beyond just a square box, and may have an exterior finish of chrome, copper, brushed metal, or any color plastic.[1] The marketing and price of toasters may not be an indication of quality for producing good toast.[1] A typical modern two-slice pop-up toaster can draw from 600 to 1200 watts.[2]

Toaster ovens

Toaster oven (Japan)
Toaster ovens are small electric ovens with a front door, wire rack and removable baking pan. To toast bread with a toaster oven, slices of bread are placed horizontally on the rack. When the toast is done, the toaster turns off, but in most cases the door must be opened manually. Most toaster ovens are significantly larger than toasters, but are capable of performing most of the functions of electric ovens, albeit on a much smaller scale. They can be used to cook toast with toppings, like garlic bread or cheese, though they tend to produce drier toast since their heating elements are located farther from the toast (to allow larger items to be cooked).[citation needed] They take 4–6 minutes to make toast as compared to 2–3 minutes in pop-up toasters.[1] Since the toast lies on bars in a toaster oven, the toast will have untoasted stripes on one side.[1] The evidence from product testing does not indicate that convection toaster ovens perform better than regular toaster ovens.[1]

As an appliance, the space toaster ovens require on a countertop ranges from 16 by 8 inches (41 cm × 20 cm)to 20 by 10 inches (51 cm × 25 cm).[1]

Conveyor toasters

A conveyor toaster can make several hundred pieces of toast in an hour
Conveyor toasters are designed to make many slices of toast and are generally used in the catering industry, cafeterias, diners, and institutional cooking facilities, as they are suitable for large-scale use. Bread is toasted at a rate of 300–1600 slices an hour, making conveyor toasters ideal for large restaurants that are consistently busy.[3] Such devices have occasionally been produced for home use as far back as 1938, when the Toast-O-Lator went into limited production.[4]

History

Toaster before the use of electricity

Toaster with an Edison screw fitting, c. 1909

General Electric Model D-12 toaster, from 1910s
Before the development of the electric toaster, sliced bread was toasted by placing it in a metal frame or on a long-handled toasting-fork[5] and holding it near a fire or over a kitchen grill. Utensils for toasting bread over open flames appeared in the early 19th century, including decorative implements made from wrought iron.[6]

The first electric bread toaster was invented by Alan MacMasters in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1893.[7][8]

Development of the heating element
The primary technical problem at the time was the development of a heating element which would be able to sustain repeated heating to red-hot temperatures without either breaking or becoming too brittle.[citation needed] A similar technical challenge had recently been surmounted with the invention of the first successful incandescent lightbulbs by Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison. However, the light bulb took advantage of the presence of a vacuum, something that couldn't be used with the toaster.

Macmasters' toaster was commercialized by the Crompton, Stephen J. Cook & Company of the UK as a toasting appliance called the Eclipse. Early attempts at producing electrical appliances using iron wiring were unsuccessful, because the wiring was easily melted and a serious fire hazard. Meanwhile, electricity was not readily available, and when it was, mostly only at night.[citation needed]

The problem of the heating element was solved in 1905 by a young engineer named Albert Marsh who designed an alloy of nickel and chromium, which came to be known as Nichrome.[9][10][11][12]

The first US patent application for an electric toaster was filed by George Schneider of the American Electrical Heater Company of Detroit in collaboration with Marsh.[10][13] One of the first applications the Hoskins company had considered for chromel was toasters, but eventually abandoned such efforts to focus on making just the wire itself.[11]

The first commercially successful electric toaster was introduced by General Electric in 1909 for the GE model D-12.[10][14][15]

Dual-side toasting and automated pop-up technologies

United States patent #1,394,450. "Bread-Toaster", patented 18 October 1921 by Charles Strite.
In 1913, Lloyd Groff Copeman and his wife Hazel Berger Copeman applied for various toaster patents and in that same year the Copeman Electric Stove Company introduced the toaster with automatic bread turner.[16] The company also produced the "toaster that turns toast." Before this, electric toasters cooked bread on one side and then it was flipped by hand to toast the other side. Copeman's toaster turned the bread around without having to touch it.[17]

The automatic pop-up toaster, which ejects the toast after toasting it, was first patented by Charles Strite in 1921.[18] In 1925, using a redesigned version of Strite's toaster, the Waters Genter Company introduced the Model 1-A-1 Toastmaster,[19] the first automatic pop-up, household toaster that could brown bread on both sides simultaneously, set the heating element on a timer, and eject the toast when finished.[citation needed]

Toasting technology after the 1940s
By the middle of the 20th century, some high-end U.S. toasters featured automatic toast lowering and raising, with no levers to operate — simply dropping the slices into the machine commenced the toasting procedure. A notable example was the Sunbeam T-20, T-35 and T-50 models (identical except for details such as control positioning) made from the late 1940s through the 1960s, which used the mechanically multiplied thermal expansion of the resistance wire in the center element assembly to lower the bread; the inserted slice of bread tripped a lever to switch on the power which immediately caused the heating element to begin expanding thus lowering the bread.

When the toast was done, as determined by a small bimetallic sensor actuated by the heat passing through the toast, the heaters were shut off and the pull-down mechanism returned to its room-temperature position, slowly raising the finished toast. This sensing of the heat passing through the toast, meant that regardless of the color of the bread (white or wholemeal) and the initial temperature of the bread (even frozen), the bread would always be toasted to the same degree. If a piece of toast was re-inserted into the toaster, it would be only reheated.[citation needed]

Newer additions to toaster technology include wider toasting slots for bagels and thick breads, the ability to toast frozen breads, and the option to heat a single side or slot. Most toasters can also be used to toast other foods such as teacakes, Pop Tarts, potato waffles and crumpets, though the addition of melted butter or sugar to the interior components of automatic electric toasters often contributes to eventual failure. In rare cases, some hobbyists modify toasters to print images and logos on bread slices.[citation needed]

Risks
Toasters cause nearly 800 deaths annually due to electrocution and fires.[20] Poking knives and other objects into a toaster is dangerous, although following electrical wiring and electrical appliances standards should reduce the risk. Apart from a risk of electrocution, there is a risk of damaging the innards of the toaster, which may later present a fire risk.[21] Toasters can cause house fires.[22] Fires near electricity should not be fought with anything that conducts electricity, such as water. Disconnecting the power first is recommended.[23] To avoid fires, a toaster can be unplugged when not in use. [24]

Research

A hot dog toaster
A number of projects have added advanced technology to toasters. In 1990, Simon Hackett and John Romkey created "The Internet Toaster," a toaster which could be controlled from the Internet.[25] In 2001, Robin Southgate froBrunel University in England created a toaster that could toast a graphic of the weather prediction (limited to sunny or cloudy) onto a piece of bread.[26] The toaster dials a pre-coded phone number to get the weather forecast.[27]
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Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: Ok
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Punipuni: Hello From The Citizens Federation Of Canada. Well it's seems that The government of Canada is now facing another scandal once again We find this very interesting and serous. And yet the Canadian people are still blind and stupid or maybe brainwashed into that everything ok,well then they completely retarded or smoking to much Crack and weed
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angel eyes1212: SOUNDS BETTER TH THIRD TIME
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Punipuni in reply to Punipuni: Ok
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Punipuni: Well what should we talk about to day how about this. That Canada has no rent control. And the fact that the rents are skyrocketed so high that the average working citizens can't afford because of this skyrocket rents
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angel eyes1212: : "Prince Harry" redirects here. For other uses, see Prince Henry (disambiguation) and Henry, Prince of Wales (disambiguation).
Prince Harry
Duke of Sussex (more)
Prince Harry at the 2017 Invictus Games opening ceremony.jpg
Prince Harry at the 2017 Invictus Games
Born 15 September 1984 (age 34)
St Mary's Hospital, London, England
Spouse Meghan Markle (m. 2018)
Full name
Henry Charles Albert David[fn 1]
House Windsor
Father Charles, Prince of Wales
Military career
Service/branch British Army
Years of service 2005–2015
(active service)
Rank See list
Service number Army – 564673
Unit Blues and Royals
3 Regiment
Army Air Corps
Battles/wars War in Afghanistan
• Operation Herrick
Royal family of
the United Kingdom and the
other Commonwealth realms
Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, KCVO, ADC(P) (Henry Charles Albert David;[fn 1] born 15 September 1984)[1] is a member of the British royal family. He is the younger son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales, and is sixth in the line of succession to the British throne. He was officially styled Prince Henry of Wales from birth until his marriage, but is known as Prince Harry.[fn 2]

Harry was educated at schools in the United Kingdom and spent parts of his gap year in Australia and Lesotho. He then underwent officer training at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He was commissioned as a cornet (i.e. second lieutenant) into the Blues and Royals, serving temporarily with his brother, Prince William, and completed his training as a troop leader. In 2007–08, he served for over ten weeks in Helmand, Afghanistan, but was pulled out after an Australian magazine revealed his presence there. He returned to Afghanistan for a 20-week deployment in 2012–13 with the Army Air Corps. He left the army in June 2015.

Harry launched the Invictus Games in 2014 and remains patron of its foundation. He also gives patronage to several other organisations, including the HALO Trust, the London Marathon Charitable Trust, and Walking With The Wounded.[2] On 19 May 2018, he married the American actress Meghan Markle. Hours before the wedding, his grandmother Queen Elizabeth II conferred on him the titles Duke of Sussex, Earl of Dumbarton and Baron Kilkeel.

Contents
1 Early life
2 Education
3 Military career
3.1 Sandhurst; Blues and Royals; deployment to Afghanistan
3.2 Army Air Corps and second deployment to Afghanistan
3.3 HQ London District and Invictus Games
3.4 Secondment to Australian Defence Force and end of active service
3.5 Post-active service
4 Activities
5 Personal life
5.1 Bachelorhood
5.2 Marriage
6 Titles, styles, honours and arms
6.1 Titles and styles
6.2 Military ranks
6.3 Honours
6.3.1 Appointments
6.3.2 Honorary military appointments
6.3.3 Humanitarian awards
6.4 Arms
7 Ancestry
9 Notes
10 References
Early life
Harry was born in the Lindo Wing of St Mary's Hospital in Paddington, London, on 15 September 1984 at 4:20 pm as the second child of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II, and Diana, Princess of Wales.[3][4][fn 3] He was baptised with the names Henry Charles Albert David, on 21 December 1984, at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Robert Runcie.[fn 4]

His parents announced their second son's name would officially be Prince Henry Charles Albert David, but that he would be known as Harry to his family and friends. As the prince grew up, he was referred to by Kensington Palace, and therefore the Press and the public at large, as Prince Harry.[10] As a son of the Prince of Wales, he was called Prince Henry of Wales. Diana wanted Harry and his older brother, William, to have a broader range of experiences than previous royal children. She took them to venues that ranged from Disney World and McDonald's to AIDS clinics and homeless shelters.[11] Harry began accompanying his parents on official visits at an early age; his first overseas tour was with his parents to Italy in 1985.[12]

Harry's parents divorced in 1996. His mother died in a car crash in Paris the following year. Harry and William were staying with their father at Balmoral at the time, and the Prince of Wales told his sons about their mother's death.[13] At his mother's funeral, Harry, then 12, accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather, and maternal uncle, Earl Spencer, in walking behind the funeral cortège from Kensington Palace to Westminster Abbey.[14] In a 2017 interview with The Daily Telegraph, the prince acknowledged that he sought counselling after two years of "total chaos" while struggling to come to terms with the death of his mother.[15]

Education
Like his father and brother, Harry was educated at independent schools. He started at London's Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory Wetherby School.[16] Following this, he attended Ludgrove School in Berkshire. After passing the entrance exams, he was admitted to Eton College. The decision to place Harry at Eton went against the Windsor family convention of sending children to Gordonstoun, which Harry's grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins had attended. It did, however, see Harry follow in the Spencer family footsteps, as both Diana's father and brother attended Eton.[11]

In June 2003, Harry completed his education at Eton with two A-Levels,[17] achieving a grade B in art and D in geography, having decided to drop history of art after AS level.[18] He excelled in sports, particularly polo and rugby union.[19] One of Harry's former teachers, Sarah Forsyth, has asserted that Harry was a "weak student" and that staff at Eton conspired to help him cheat on examinations.[20][21] Both Eton and Harry denied the claims.[20][22] While a tribunal made no ruling on the cheating claim, it "accepted the prince had received help in preparing his A-level 'expressive' project, which he needed to pass to secure his place at Sandhurst."[20][23]

After school, Harry took a gap year, during which he spent time in Australia working (as his father had done in his youth) on a cattle station, and participating in the Young England vs Young Australia Polo Test match.[24] He also travelled to Lesotho, where he worked with orphaned children and produced the documentary film The Forgotten Kingdom.[11]

Military career
Sandhurst; Blues and Royals; deployment to Afghanistan

Officer Cadet Wales (standing to attention next to the horse) on parade at Sandhurst, 21 June 2005
Harry entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 8 May 2005, where he was known as Officer Cadet Wales, and joined the Alamein Company.[25] In April 2006, Harry completed his officer training and was commissioned as a Cornet (second lieutenant) in the Blues and Royals, a regiment of the Household Cavalry in the British Army. On 13 April 2008, when he reached two years' seniority, Harry was promoted to lieutenant.[26]

In 2006, it was announced that Harry's unit was scheduled to be deployed in Iraq the following year. A public debate ensued as to whether he should serve there. Defence Secretary John Reid said that he should be allowed to serve on the front line of battle zones. Harry agreed saying, "If they said 'no, you can't go front line' then I wouldn't drag my sorry ass through Sandhurst and I wouldn't be where I am now."[27] The Ministry of Defence and Clarence House mad
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Punipuni to schruds: Ok
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angel eyes1212: PUNI PUNI HOW DO i LEARN TO CARVE NOT ANIMMME BUT A VACUUM CLEANER
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angel eyes1212: COPY AND PASTE THAT INTO A NEW TAB THATS HIS PICTURE
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angel eyes1212: .3 Pumping and ambient air pressure
8 Effects on humans and animals
9 Examples
11 References
Etymology
The word vacuum comes from Latin, meaning 'an empty space, void', noun use of neuter of vacuus, meaning "empty", related to vacare, meaning "be empty".

Vacuum is one of the few words in the English language that contains two consecutive letters 'u'.[7]

Historical interpretation
Historically, there has been much dispute over whether such a thing as a vacuum can exist. Ancient Greek philosophers debated the existence of a vacuum, or void, in the context of atomism, which posited void and atom as the fundamental explanatory elements of physics. Following Plato, even the abstract concept of a featureless void faced considerable skepticism: it could not be apprehended by the senses, it could not, itself, provide additional explanatory power beyond the physical volume with which it was commensurate and, by definition, it was quite literally nothing at all, which cannot rightly be said to exist. Aristotle believed that no void could occur naturally, because the denser surrounding material continuum would immediately fill any incipient rarity that might give rise to a void.

In his Physics, book IV, Aristotle offered numerous arguments against the void: for example, that motion through a medium which offered no impediment could continue ad infinitum, there being no reason that something would come to rest anywhere in particular. Although Lucretius argued for the existence of vacuum in the first century BC and Hero of Alexandria tried unsuccessfully to create an artificial vacuum in the first century AD,[8] it was European scholars such as Roger Bacon, Blasius of Parma and Walter Burley in the 13th and 14th century who focused considerable attention on these issues. Eventually following Stoic physics in this instance, scholars from the 14th century onward increasingly departed from the Aristotelian perspective in favor of a supernatural void beyond the confines of the cosmos itself, a conclusion widely acknowledged by the 17th century, which helped to segregate natural and theological concerns.[9]

Almost two thousand years after Plato, René Descartes also proposed a geometrically based alternative theory of atomism, without the problematic nothing–everything dichotomy of void and atom. Although Descartes agreed with the contemporary position, that a vacuum does not occur in nature, the success of his namesake coordinate system and more implicitly, the spatial–corporeal component of his metaphysics would come to define the philosophically modern notion of empty space as a quantified extension of volume. By the ancient definition however, directional information and magnitude were conceptually distinct.

Torricelli's mercury barometer produced one of the first sustained vacuums in a laboratory.
In the medieval Middle Eastern world, the physicist and Islamic scholar, Al-Farabi (Alpharabius, 872–950), conducted a small experiment concerning the existence of vacuum, in which he investigated handheld plungers in water.[10][unreliable source?] He concluded that air's volume can expand to fill available space, and he suggested that the concept of perfect vacuum was incoherent.[11] However, according to Nader El-Bizri, the physicist Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen, 965–1039) and the Mu'tazili theologians disagreed with Aristotle and Al-Farabi, and they supported the existence of a void. Using geometry, Ibn al-Haytham mathematically demonstrated that place (al-makan) is the imagined three-dimensional void between the inner surfaces of a containing body.[12] According to Ahmad Dallal, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī also states that "there is no observable evidence that rules out the possibility of vacuum".[13] The suction pump later appeared in Europe from the 15th century.[14][15][16]

Medieval thought experiments into the idea of a vacuum considered whether a vacuum was present, if only for an instant, between two flat plates when they were rapidly separated.[17] There was much discussion of whether the air moved in quickly enough as the plates were separated, or, as Walter Burley postulated, whether a 'celestial agent' prevented the vacuum arising. The commonly held view that nature abhorred a vacuum was called horror vacui. There was even speculation that even God could not create a vacuum if he wanted and the 1277 Paris condemnations of Bishop Etienne Tempier, which required there to be no restrictions on the powers of God, which led to the conclusion that God could create a vacuum if he so wished.[18] Jean Buridan reported in the 14th century that teams of ten horses could not pull open bellows when the port was sealed.[8]

The Crookes tube, used to discover and study cathode rays, was an evolution of the Geissler tube.
The 17th century saw the first attempts to quantify measurements of partial vacuum.[19] Evangelista Torricelli's mercury barometer of 1643 and Blaise Pascal's experiments both demonstrated a partial vacuum.

In 1654, Otto von Guericke invented the first vacuum pump[20] and conducted his famous Magdeburg hemispheres experiment, showing that teams of horses could not separate two hemispheres from which the air had been partially evacuated. Robert Boyle improved Guericke's design and with the help of Robert Hooke further developed vacuum pump technology. Thereafter, research into the partial vacuum lapsed until 1850 when August Toepler invented the Toepler Pump and Heinrich Geissler invented the mercury displacement pump in 1855, achieving a partial vacuum of about 10 Pa (0.1 Torr). A number of electrical properties become observable at this vacuum level, which renewed interest in further research.

While outer space provides the most rarefied example of a naturally occurring partial vacuum, the heavens were originally thought to be seamlessly filled by a rigid indestructible material called aether. Borrowing somewhat from the pneuma of Stoic physics, aether came to be regarded as the rarefied air from which it took its name, (see Aether (mythology)). Early theories of light posited a ubiquitous terrestrial and celestial medium through which light propagated. Additionally, the concept informed Isaac Newton's explanations of both refraction and of radiant heat.[21] 19th century experiments into this luminiferous aether attempted to detect a minute drag on the Earth's orbit. While the Earth does, in fact, move through a relatively dense medium in comparison to that of interstellar space, the drag is so minuscule that it could not be detected. In 1912, astronomer Henry Pickering commented: "While the interstellar absorbing medium may be simply the ether, [it] is characteristic of a gas, and free gaseous molecules are certainly there".[22]

Later, in 1930, Paul Dirac proposed a model of the vacuum as an infinite sea of particles possessing negative energy, called the Dirac sea. This theory helped refine the predictions of his earlier formulated Dirac equation, and successfully predicted the existence of the positron, confirmed two years later. Werner Heisenberg's uncertainty principle formulated in 1927, predict a fundamental limit within which instantaneous position and momentum, or energy and time can be measured. This has far reaching consequences on the "emptiness" of space between particles. In the late 20th century, so-called virtual particles that arise spontaneously from empty space were confirmed.

Classical field theories

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The strictest criterion to define a vacuum is a region of space and time where all the components of the stress–energy tensor are zero. This means that this region is devoid of energy and momentum, and by consequence, it must be empty of particles and other physical fields (such as electromagnetism) that contain energy and momentum.

Gravity

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In general relativity, a vanishing stress–energy tensor implies, through Einstein field equations, the vanishing of all the components of the Ricci tensor. Vacuum does not mean that the curvature of space-time is necessarily flat: the gravitational field can still produce curvature in a vacuum in the form of tidal forces and gravitational waves (technically, these phenomena are the components of the Weyl tensor). The black hole (with zero electric charge) is an elegant example of a region completely "filled" with vacuum, but still showing a strong curvature.

Electromagnetism
In classical electromagnetism, the vacuum of free space, or sometimes just free space or perfect vacuum, is a standard reference medium for electromagnetic effects.[23][24] Some authors refer to this reference medium as classical vacuum,[23] a terminology intended to separate this concept from QED vacuum or QCD vacuum, where vacuum fluctuations can produce transient virtual particle densities and a relative permittivity and relative permeability that are not identically unity.[25][26][27]

In the theory of classical electromagnetism, free space has the following properties:

Electromagnetic radiation travels, when unobstructed, at the speed of light, the defined value 299,792,458 m/s in SI units.[28]
The superposition principle is always exactly true.[29] For example, the electric potential generated by two charges is the simple addition of the potentials generated by each charge in isolation. The value of the electric field at any point around these two charges is found by calculating the vector sum of the two electric fields from each of the charges acting alone.
The permittivity and permeability are exactly the electric constant ε0[30] and magnetic constant μ0,[31] respectively (in SI units), or exactly 1 (in Gaussian units).
The characteristic impedance (η) equals the impedance of free space Z0 ≈ 376.73 Ω.[32]
The vacuum of classical electromagnetism can be viewed as an idealized electromagnetic medium with the constitutive relations in SI units:[33]

{\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {D}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)=\varepsilon _{0}{\boldsymbol {E}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)\,} {\boldsymbol {D}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)=\varepsilon _{0}{\boldsymbol {E}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)\,
{\displaystyle {\boldsymbol {H}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)={\frac {1}{\mu _{0}}}{\boldsymbol {B}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)\,} {\boldsymbol {H}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)={\frac {1}{\mu _{0}}}{\boldsymbol {B}}({\boldsymbol {r}},\ t)\,
relating the electric displacement field D to the electric field E and the magnetic field or H-field H to the magnetic induction or B-field B. Here r is a spatial location and t is time.

Quantum mechanics
Further information: QED vacuum, QCD vacuum, and Vacuum state
File:Vacuum fluctuations revealed through spontaneous parametric down-conversion.ogv
A video of an experiment showing vacuum fluctuations (in the red ring) amplified by spontaneous parametric down-conversion.
In quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, the vacuum is defined as the state (that is, the solution to the equations of the theory) with the lowest possible energy (the ground state of the Hilbert space). In quantum electrodynamics this vacuum is referred to as 'QED vacuum' to distinguish it from the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, denoted as QCD vacuum. QED vacuum is a state with no matter particles (hence the name), and also no photons. As described above, this state is impossible to achieve experimentally. (Even if every matter particle could somehow be removed from a volume, it would be impossible to eliminate all the blackbody photons.) Nonetheless, it provides a good model for realizable vacuum, and agrees with a number of experimental observations as described next.

QED vacuum has interesting and complex properties. In QED vacuum, the electric and magnetic fields have zero average values, but their variances are not zero.[34] As a result, QED vacuum contains vacuum fluctuations (virtual particles that hop into and out of existence), and a finite energy called vacuum energy. Vacuum fluctuations are an essential and ubiquitous part of quantum field theory. Some experimentally verified effects of vacuum fluctuations include spontaneous emission and the Lamb shift.[18] Coulomb's law and the electric potential in vacuum near an electric charge are modified.[35]

Theoretically, in QCD multiple vacuum states can coexist.[36] The starting and ending of cosmological inflation is thought to have arisen from transitions between different vacuum states. For theories obtained by quantization of a classical theory, each stationary point of the energy in the configuration space gives rise to a single vacuum. String theory is believed to have a huge number of vacua – the so-called string theory landscape.

Outer space
Main article: Outer space

Outer space is not a perfect vacuum, but a tenuous plasma awash with charged particles, free elements such as hydrogen, helium and oxygen, electromagnetic fields, and the occasional star.
Outer space has very low density and pressure, and is the closest physical approximation of a perfect vacuum. But no vacuum is truly perfect, not even in interstellar space, where there are still a few hydrogen atoms per cubic meter.[5]

Stars, planets, and moons keep their atmospheres by gravitational attraction, and as such, atmospheres have no clearly delineated boundary: the density of atmospheric gas simply decreases with distance from the object. The Earth's atmospheric pressure drops to about 3.2×10−2 Pa at 100 kilometres (62 mi) of altitude,[37] the Kármán line, which is a common definition of the boundary with outer space. Beyond this line, isotropic gas pressure rapidly becomes insignificant when compared to radiation pressure from the Sun and the dynamic pressure of the solar winds, so the definition of pressure becomes difficult to interpret. The thermosphere in this range has large gradients of pressure, temperature and composition, and varies greatly due to space weather. Astrophysicists prefer to use number density to describe these environments, in units of particles per cubic centimetre.

But although it meets the definition of outer space, the atmospheric density within the first few hundred kilometers above the Kármán line is still sufficient to produce significant drag on satellites. Most artificial satellites operate in this region called low Earth orbit and must fire their engines every couple of weeks or a few times a year (depending on solar activity).[38] The drag here is low enough that it could theoretically be overcome by radiation pressure on solar sails, a proposed propulsion system for interplanetary travel.[citation needed] Planets are too massive for their trajectories to be significantly affected by these forces, although their atmospheres are eroded by the solar winds.

All of the observable universe is filled with large numbers of photons, the so-called cosmic background radiation, and quite likely a correspondingly large number of neutrinos. The current temperature of this radiation is about 3 K, or −270 degrees Celsius or −454 degrees Fahrenheit.
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